Milk is a white liquid food which is being produced from the mammary gland of a female mammal. It contains protein,carbohydrate and minerals.
TYPES OF MILK
The following below indicates the difference between human and cows’s milk; considerable modifications must be made when cows’s milk is used to replace human milk. The basis of this is that water is added to reduce the protein concentration and sugar added to augment the carbohydrate content. These types of milk can be used to feed infants.
- Dried Milk
- Evaporated or Condensed Milk
- Cows’s Milk
Twenty eight grams(1 fl.oz) of cows’s milk or human milk provides approximately 84kj(20 calories). One level teaspoonful of milk sugar provides 63kj(15 calories). Babies or infants are being fed with these milk according to their progress and ability to digest it.
This type of milk is supplied in tins and has the advantage of being
- constant composition.
- easy to digest.
- easily made up into feed.
Dried milk can be obtained as full or half cream. Great care must be taken to follow the instructions on the label of the tin. In the hospital, the nurse must ensure that the mother of the baby understands how to make up the baby’s feeds and that adding extra powder may be harmful to the baby. The water used should be taken from the cold water supply and boiled. Water from a hot water system should never be used. Hot water may have absorbed chemical substances, such as lead or copper compounds, from the water pipes and these are harmful to the child.
Care should be taken during and after reconstituting dried milk to ensure that it does not become contaminated. Mothers should be advised to make up only one feed at a time unless they have a refrigerator immediately available.
Evaporated milk has been reduced in volume, is sterile and supplied in sealed tins. The various commercial food processing firms reduce the volume by different amounts and add sugar. When using evaporated milk, it is important to read the label carefully to find out the recommended method of reconstitution (proportions of milk to water), and the amounts of nutrients present. The nurse in charge should be asked if the food processing firms recommendations need to be modified for a particular infant.
There should be a kind of orientation for the mothers on how to prepare the feeds. It should be emphasised that increasing the strength of the mixture of milk and water may be harmful to the baby. All the contents of the tin may not be used immediately it is opened, care must be taken to prevent contamination before and after the milk is reconstituted.
Cow milk should be pasteurised. Infants should have the following in addition to their milk feed
- Cod-liver oil
- Half a teaspoonful twice a day
- Orange juice
- 4 ml with water twice daily
- Cows’ milk – 336 ml(12 fl. oz.)
- Water – 225 ml (8 fl. oz.)
- Sugar – as prescribed.
COMPOSITION OF MILK
Milk is comprised of protein,fat,carbohydrate,mineral salts,water and vitamins.
Human milk, it contains 1.5 percent of protein which comprised of 1.0 percent of lactalbumin and 0.5 caseinogen. 3.5 percent of fat, 6.5 percent of carbohydrate, 0.2 percent of mineral salts, 88.3 percent of water and vitamin A and B complex.
Cow’s milk cotains 3.3 percent of protein which comprised of 0.3 percent of lactalbumin and 3.0 caseinogen. 4.0 percent fat, 5.0 percent of carbohydrate, 0.7 percent of mineral salts, 87.0 percent of water and vitamin A and B complex.