Ways Drugs Are Administered Into The Body.
Drug can be administered into the body through different ways, but there are three major methods and routes which you can administer drug into the body. They are:
1. Orally or ingestion
2. Rectally or introduced into the rectum
8. Iontophoresis or ionic medication
9. Insertion of medicated pessaries, bougies and suppositories
Oral administration of drugs
In this method of drug administration, the drug may be in the form of a mixture or suspension, a powder, a pill, a tablet, a capsule or a cachet.
Rectal administration of drugs
In this method of drug administration, the drug is being introduced into the rectum and from there, it moves into the body system.
Given drugs by injection is a method used :
1. When fairly quick action is required; at least more rapid than when administered orally
2. When the drug would be altered by the digestive juices. An example of such a drug is insulin.
3. When the exact amount of drug which is absorbed must be known. For example: Morphine. If this is given orally, all of it may not be absorbed.
The two major type of injection which is commonly used by nurses are the:
This method can be done in the following ways:
a. intradermally, between the dermis and the epidermis
b. hypodermically or subcutaneously under the dermis
c. intramuscularly, into the muscle
d. intravenously, into a vein
e. intrathecally, into the subarachnoid space
Requirements for administration to be set on a tray or trolley
- Medicine bottles, powder, tablets etc.
- Patient’s chart or treatment card with instructions.
For oral administration
- Medicine glasses and minim glasses.
- Two bowls, one with water and the other with water plus detergent.
- Medicine glass towel
- A jug of cold water.
Methods of administering a mixture or suspension
1. Read the label on the bottle carefully and compare it with the patient’s chart or medicine list.
2. S hake the bottle with the first finger on the cork, then turn the bottle so that the label will be the uppermost when the medicine is being poured.
3. Remove the cork with the little finger of the left hand; that is the hand that will hold the medicine glass. The cork of the bottle should be retained in the flexed little finger.
4. Read the label the second time and check it with the instruction.
5. With the thumb-nail of the left hand, mark the level to which the medicine has to be poured into the medicine glass, then pour out the prescribed dose. It should be poured away from the label of the bottle and the glass should be held at eye level. It should be seen that the surface of the fluid in the glass is curved; this is called the meniscus. Then the reading should be taken at the lowest point of the meniscus. If there is a drip from the lip of the bottle, it should be caught on the edge of the glass.
6. After replacing the cork, read the label the third time and compare it with the chart and the dose in the glass.
7. You may add a little water to the medicine in the glass.
8. Carry the medicine to the patient on a small tray, a teaspoon should also be taken so that if there is a sediment, the medicine can be stirred just before it is given to the patient.
9. Check the identity of the patient against the prescription.
10. Stay with the patient until the medicine has been swallowed and give the patient water to drink after he or she has taken the medicine.
11. The medicine glass is then washed, rinsed and dried with the medicine or glass cloth.
12. If the dose has been measured in minim glass, a little water should be added and the mixture poured into the medicine glass. The minim glass should be rinsed with water .
If a small number of minims are to be given, they may be added to a sugar lump and given to the patient this way.