Introduction To Elementary Land Surveying
Elementary land surveying.
Land surveying is defined as the process by which measurements of land is made and then represents such measurement by table,plans or layout for specific purposes.
It can also mean the measuring and mapping out of the position,size and boundaries of an area of land.
Importance of land surveying
- Area of land: Land surveying helps to determine the area of a place e.g market,school,garden.
- Position of construction: It helps to set on the ground the position of construction or any engineering works.
- Production of maps: It can also help to determine the production of maps.
- Position of certain features: land survey can also be used to determine the relative positions or features of the earth(natural or artificial)so that they may be correctly presented on maps.
- Feasibility studies: Land surveying can be used as basis of feasibility studies in any construction work to be carried out on the surveyed land.
- Land security: Land surveying gives the owner of the land security which can be used to obtain loan as soon as certificate of occupancy(c of o)is given.
Branches and types of land survey
There are different branches of land survey.They are:
Topographical surveys : In topographic surveys,the survey works are based on the different locations of the main,natural or artificial features of the earth,such as rivers,hills,valleys etc.
Engineering surveys : These surveys include all aspects involved in the preparation of engineering works to its execution.The features are channels,roads,dams,rail etc.
Geodetic survey: These are high accuracy surveys mainly concerned with the shape of the earth position,fixing of points which provide control for lower accuracy survey
Geological surveys: These have to do with features associated with the inner structure of the earth .eg type of soil,water table,mineral content etc.
Geographical survey: These involve the surveying of natural and man-made features of the earth, eg. market,road,school,hospital,rivers and mountains etc.
Cadastral survey: These are survey works based on the preparation of plans,indicating and defining the legal property boundaries.
Military survey: These involves the survey of land,air and water bodies to provide adequate information for the purpose of defence
Types of surveying
- Chain surveying
- Traverse surveying
- Aerial surveying
- Triangulation surveying
- Plane table surveying
- Hydro graphic surveying