Burn is known as injury on the surface of the skin which is being caused by radiation, chemicals, heat, electricity, cold. This can lead to the damage of the skin tissue and cells depending on how severe the burn is; it is mostly caused by hot liquid fire.
TYPES OF BURN
- Minor Burn that do not form blisters.
- Burn that causes blisters.
- Deep burn.
- Burn around the joints
PREVENTION FOR BURN
- Burn can be prevented by taken special care with children.
- Do not let small babies go near a fire.
- Keep lighter, lamps and matches out of the reach of children
- Turn handles of gas cooker or stove so that children cannot reach them
PRECAUTIONS FOR SERIOUS BURN
Someone who has been badly burned can easily go into shock because of the loss of body fluid from the oozing burn.
- Comfort and reassure the burned person.
- Give him or her aspirin for the pain and codeine if there is a way you can get it.
- Bath the open wound with slightly salty water which helps to calm the pain.
- Put one teaspoon of salt to each liter of boiled or cold water.
- Give the burned person plenty of liquid.
If the burned area is large; that is being more than twice the size of his hand for instance, make up the following drink
- To a liter of water, add half a teaspoon of salt.
- Add half a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda.
- Put in 2 or 3 tablespoon of sugar or honey and some orange lemon juice if possible.
The burned person should drink this as often as possible until he or she urinates frequently.
TREATMENT FOR BURN
MINOR BURN THAT DO NOT FORM BLISTERS
To help ease the pain and lessen the damage caused by a minor burn, put the burned part in cold water at once. No other treatment is needed. You can then take aspirin for pain. But when the burn is severe than this, the person should be taken to the hospital for proper medical care or attention.
BURN THAT CAUSES BLISTERS
It is very important to know that you do not break blisters caused by burn. If the blisters are broken, wash gently with antiseptic and boiled water. If the burn is not over a moving joint, leave the burn uncovered and allow it to dry. Dab on gentian violet solution to help keep it clean and speed up the formation of a dry surface coating.
The burn will heal beneath the surface in one or two weeks. If the burn is near a moving joint, like the elbow, then sterilize a little Vaseline by heating it until it boils then spread it on a piece of sterile gauze. When it is cool, put the gauze on the burn. Never smear on oil or butter.
It is also very essential to keep the burn as clean as possible. Make sure you protect it from dirt, flies and dust.
If signs of infection appear; like pus, bad smell, fever, swollen lymph node, you can apply compresses of warm salt water ( 1 teaspoon salt to 1 liter of water) 3 times a day. Boil both the water and cloth before use. With great care, remove the dead skin and flesh. You can spread on a little antibiotic ointment such as Neosporin. In severe cases, you should consider taking an antibiotic such as penicillin or ampicillin.
BURN AROUND THE JOINTS
Whenever someone is badly burned between the fingers, in the armpit or other joints, gauze pad with Vaseline on them should be put between the burn surfaces to prevent them from growing together as they heal. Also fingers, arms and legs should be straightened completely several times a day while healing.
This is painful but helps prevent stiff scars that limit movement. While the burned hand is healing, the fingers should be kept in a slightly bent position.
Burn that destroy the skin and expose raw or charred flesh is always serious like any other burn that cover large areas of the body. Take the person to a health center at once. In the meantime wrap the burned part with a very clean cloth or towel. If it is impossible to get medical health, treat the burn as described above.
If you do not have Vaseline, leave the burn in the open air, covering it only with a loose cotton cloth or sheet to protect it from dust and flies. Keep the cloth very clean and change it each time it gets dirty with the liquid or blood from the burn. You can as well give penicillin to the person.
Never put oil, hides, coffee or herbs on a burn. Covering the burn with honey helps to prevent and control infection and speeds up healing. Gently wash off the old honey and put on new one at least twice a day.